A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
    Please click on any of the letters above to find the corresponding theory. I have, as far as possible, classified theories using the different icons below. Classification is not always clearly possible or easy and some theories fall in between, or straddle, two or more categories. The categorisation I made is therefore slightly tenuous. It should fit in with the requirements for the Level 6 Qualification in Career Guidance, however.
Differentialism Theories focusing on the needs or specific sociocultural groups Learning theories
Developmentalism Theories linked to uplanned events management Motivational theories
Structuralism Constructivism Transition theories and theories of change
Opportunity Structure Theories derived from psychology/psychotherapy/counselling Vocational behaviour theories
Social Learning Theories of deicsion making and avoidance
Community Interaction Coaching Theories
This symbol indicates theories that would be of particular interest for those studying for the Level 6 Qualification in Career Guidance. Please be aware that these are not the only theories that apply and it would in my view be important to familiarise yourself with other theories as well. In addition to this, there is a specific question (Lo. 6.6.1 and 6.6.2) which focuses on new theories. I think it would also be important to focus on those theories that are specifically important or relevant to your specific work context (eg. working with children or specifically with adults).
  As mentioned before, it is not my intention to offer an exhaustive explanation and analysis of each and every Theory. It’s relatively easy to find that information on the many websites and in the many resources out there. It’s my intention to offer something in addition to this, a useful summary that supports different learning styles and an exploration of the tools we can use with clients, linked to the different theories. I would also like to offer a succinct critique with each Theory to get you started. Especially if you are completing your Level 6 Qualification in Career Guidance and Development, it’s imperative that you form your own critique and make up your own mind about each of the different theories you encounter. In addition, some tips for your research - Click/Tap for further information
Normally, none of us have access to a full academic library. The best most of us can hope for is a search on the web and the few books we have. Making your time on the web count is important and I hope the following will help with that:
  • If you are exploring a ‘new to you’ Theory, I would suggest starting with a picture search in google or similar. This wil normally bring up a visual representation of the Theory you are exploring. But… be careful you have the right one! This will hopefully give you a quick and easy way into a new Theory.
  • Wikipedia, however imprecise it is by reputation, is a good starting point to get to know more about theorists. Also don’t forget the references at the bottom of every Wikipedia page, which can offer an excellent reading list for further exploration.
  • By adding the word ‘scholar’ or ‘academic’ behind your search term, you may have access to one of the many extracts of research texts that are available online. Another possible source of references, information and research could be book previews on websites like Amazon and co.
  • I have also added some useful links to websites about career Theory in the ‘useful links’ section of this part of the website.
 

A

Marcr - Career theory: Acceptance and commitment therapy/training (ACT) - Tom Luken & Albert de Folter 2000 & 2012 Acceptance and Commitment Therapy/Training (ACT) – Tom Luken & Albert de Folter 2000 & 2012

B

Marcr - Career theory: Boundaryless Career - Arthur & Rousseau 1996 Boundaryless Career – Arthur & Rousseau 1996

C

Marcr - Career theory: Career Anchors - Edgar H. Schein 1975 Career Anchors – Edgar H. Schein 1975
Marcr - Career theory: Career Choice and Attainment Model - Kimberly A.S.Howard 2010 Career Choice and Attainment Model – Kimberly A.S.Howard 2010
Marcr - Career theory: Career Construction Theory & Life Design – Narrative approach - Mark Savickas 2005 - Psychodynamic Theories - Mark Savickas 1989 Career Construction Theory & Life Design – Narrative approach – Mark Savickas 2005
Career Counseling with Underserved Populations Model – Mark Pope 2011
Marcr - Career theory: Career Engagement Model - Roberta A. Neault & Deirdre A. Pickerell 2011 Career Engagement Model – Roberta A. Neault & Deirdre A. Pickerell 2011
Marcr - Career theory: Career Scotland Model - NTU Career Contimuum - Nottingham Trent University Career Scotland Model (see NTU Career Continuum)
Career Self Determination Theory – Charles P. Chen 2017
Marcr - Career theory: Careership Theory - Phil Hodkinson and Andrew C. Sparkes 1997 - Horizon of action Careership Theory – Phil Hodkinson and Andrew C. Sparkes 1996
Marcr - Career theory: Career Writing Method - Reinekke Lengelle & Frans Meijers 2017 Career Writing Method – Reinekke Lengelle & Frans Meijers 2017
Change Management Model – Kurt Lewin 1947
Marcr - Career theory: Change Model - Cynthia Scott and Dennis Jaffe Change Model – Cynthia Scott and Dennis Jaffe 1988
Marcr - Career theory: Chaos Theory of Careers - Pryor and Bright 2011 Chaos Theory of Careers – Pryor and Bright 2011
Marcr - Career theory: Client-centred Theory - Carl Rogers 1942 & 1951 & C.H. Patterson 1964 Client-centred Theory – Patterson 1964, Rogers 1942 & 1951
Cognitive Information Processing Theory – Sampson, Lenz, Reardon, & Peterson 1999
Marcr - Career theory: Coherent Career Practice - Kris Magnusson & Dave Redekopp 2011 - Career Support Coherent Career Practice – Kris Magnusson & Dave Redekopp 2011
Community Interaction Theory – Bill Law 1981 & 1996
Constructivist Theory – Chartrand et al., 1995; Cochran, 1997; Collin & Young, 1986; Peavy, 1992; Savickas, 1993 & 1997; Young et al. 1996; Wendy Patton & Mary McMahon 2006
Marcr - Career theory: Contextual Action Theory (CAT) - Lev Vygotsky, L. Valach & Young, R. A. 2002 Contextual Action Theory (CAT) – Lev Vygotsky, L. Valach & Young, R. A. 2002
Continuous Participation Model – Danielle Rivern-Simard 2005
Cormier and Hackney Model – Harold L. Hackney & Sherry Cormier, 1993
Culture Infused Counselling Theory (CICC) – Nancy Arthur 2013

D

Marcr - Career theory: Decision Making Model - Tanya Arroba 1977 Decision Making Model – Tanya Arroba 1977
Marcr - Career theory: Developmental theory - Ginzberg et al. 1951 Developmental Theory – Ginzberg et al. 1951
Developmental Theory – Life Span Development – Donald Super 1957 and Donald Super et al. 1961 & 1980
Differentialism – see Environmental Theory
DOTS Model – Law & Watts, 1977 & 1996

E

Marcr - Career theory: Environmental theory – Matching theories - Frank Parsons 1908 Environmental Theory – Matching theories – Trait and Factor Theory – Frank Parsons 1908
Marcr - Career theory: Environmental theory – Matching theories - Alec Rodger 1952 Environmental Theory – Matching theories – Trait and Factor Theory – Alec Rodger 1952
Marcr - Career theory: Environmental Theory – Matching theories - John L. Holland 1966, 1973, 1985, 1992 RAISEC Environmental Theory – Matching theories – Trait and Factor Theory – John L. Holland 1966, 1973, 1985, 1992
Expectancy Motivation Theory – Victor Vroom 1964
Experiential Learning Theory – David Kolb 1985

F

Marcr - Career theory: The First Model - Tol Bedford 1982 The First Model – Tol Bedford 1982
Marcr - Career theory: Five-factor model (FFM) or OCEAN model* - Ernest Tupes & Raymond Christal 1961 The Big 5 – Five-factor Model (FFM) or OCEAN Model* – Ernest Tupes & Raymond Christal 1961

G

GROW Model -Sir John Whitmore 1992

H

Marcr - Career theory: Happenstance theory - Krumboltz & Levin 1999 - 2004; Mitchell et al., 1999 - Planned happenstance [Planned] Happenstance Learning Theory – Krumboltz & Levin 1999 – 2004; Mitchell et al. 1999
Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow 1954

Hope-Action Theory Pinwheel metaphor

Hope-Action Theory -Spencer Niles, Norman Amundson, Hyung Joon Yoon, 2010  

I

Marcr - Career theory: Integrative Life Planning Theory - Sunny Hansen 1997 - Hansen’s six critical life tasks Integrative Life Planning Theory – Sunny Hansen 1997

J

K

L

Learning Theory of Careers Choice and Counselling (LTCC) – Mitchell and Krumboltz 1996
Life-is-Career Theory – Miller-Tiedeman 1999
Life Span Development – Donald Super 1957 – 1980

M

Matching Theory – See Environmental Theory
Marcr - Career theory: Motivational interviewing - William R. Miller, Terri Moyers and Stephen Rollnick 1983 Motivational Interviewing – William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick  1983
Marcr - Career theory: Motivation Hygiene Theory - 2 Factor Theory - Frederick Herzberg Motivation Hygiene Theory – 2 Factor Theory – Frederick Herzberg 1968
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Model* – Myers and Briggs 1944

N

Marcr - Career theory: Narrative Career Counselling - Savickas (eg 1997), Cochran (eg 1997) & Peavy (eg 2000) - Overview Narrative Career Counselling – Savickas (eg 1997), Cochran (eg 1997) & Peavy (eg 2000)
Marcr - Career theory: Career Scotland Model - NTU Career Contimuum - Nottingham Trent University NTU Career Continuum/Careers Scotland Model 

O

Marcr - Career theory: Opportunity Structure Theory - Roberts 1968 - 1997 Opportunity Structure Theory – Roberts 1968 – 1997

P

Marcr - Career theory: Happenstance theory - Krumboltz & Levin 1999 - 2004; Mitchell et al., 1999 - Planned happenstance Planned Happenstance Learning Theory – Krumboltz & Levin 1999 – 2004; Mitchell et al., 1999
Marcr - Career theory: Protean Career - Douglas T. Hall 1976 - traditional versus protean career Protean Career – Douglas T. Hall 1976
Marcr - Career theory: Career Construction Theory & Life Design – Narrative approach - Mark Savickas 2005 - Psychodynamic Theories - Mark Savickas 1989 Psychodynamic Theories – Mark Savickas 1989
Psychology of working – David L. Blustein, Ryan D. Duffy, Matthew A. Diemer, Kelsey L. Autin 2013

R

Reflective Cycle (Gibbs’) – Graham Gibbs 1988

Reflection-in-action Model – Schön 1983

S

Marcr - Career theory: 7 Stage Model of Change - Ronald Lippitt 1958 7 Stage Model of Change – Ronald Lippitt 1958
SeSiFU Model – Bill Law – see further down on DOTS page
Single Interaction Model – Hazel L. Reid and Alison J. Fielding 2007
Marcr - Career theory: Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)* - Raymond Cattell 1946, 1949, 1965 Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)* – Raymond Cattell 1946, 1949, 1965
Marcr - Career theory: Skilled Helper Model - Gerard Egan 1998 Skilled Helper Model – Gerard Egan 1998
Skills Development Scotland Model – Liane Hambly 2008
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) – Hackett & Betz, 1981; Lent, Brown, & Hackett 1994
Social Learning Theory – Albert Bandura 1977 & 1986
Social Learning Theory (SLTCDM) – Krumboltz et al 1976, Mitchell & Krumboltz 1990 & 1996
Marcr - Career theory: Solution Focused Career Theory - Judi Miller 2004 Solution Focused Career Theory – Judi Miller 2004
Sparks Theory – Minna Kattelus 2010 – 2015
Stages of Change Model – Transtheoretical Model – James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente – 1983
Marcr - Career theory: 3 Step Storyboarding Model - Bill Law 2008 3 Step Storyboarding – Bill Law 2008
Marcr - Career theory: Strengths-based Approach - Schutt 2007 - Strength-based-Appreciative Approach Strengths-based Approach – Schutt 2007
Marcr - Career theory: Opportunity Structure Theory - Roberts 1968 - 1997 Structural Theory (see Opportunity Structure Theory) – Roberts 1968 – 1997
Marcr - Career theory: Synergistic Theory of Organisational Career Development - Kerry Bernes 1999 Synergistic Theory of Organisational Career Development – Kerry Bernes 1999
Systems Theory Framework of Career Development – Wendy Patton & Mary McMahon 2006

T

Marcr - Career theory: Five-factor model (FFM) or OCEAN model* - Ernest Tupes & Raymond Christal 1961 The Big 5 – Five-factor Model (FFM) or OCEAN Model* – Ernest Tupes & Raymond Christal 1961
Theory of Career Choice and Development – Psychodynamic Theories – Anne Roe 1956
Marcr - Career theory: Theory of Circumscription and Compromise - Linda Gottfredson 1981 Theory of Circumscription and Compromise – Linda Gottfredson 1981
Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice – see Environmental Theory
Transition Theory – Schlossberg 1981 & 1989
Transition Cycle – N. Nicholson and M. A. West 1988
Transtheoretical Model – Stages of Change Model – James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente – 1983
Marcr - Career theory: Motivation Hygiene Theory - 2 Factor Theory - Frederick Herzberg Two Factor Theory – Frederick Herzberg 1968 – see Motivaton Hygiene Theory

V

Marcr - Career theory: Value-based Career Decision Making - D Brown 1995, 1996& 2002; Brown & Crace 1995 Values-Based Model of Career Choice – D Brown 1995, 1996 & 2002; Brown & Crace 1996

W

Rolfe reflection reflective model what? The ‘What’ Model – Rolfe, Freshwater & Jasper 2001
Marcr - Career theory: Work Adjustment Theory - Dawis & Lofquist 1984 Balanced P-E correspondence Work Adjustment Theory – Dawis & Lofquist 1984

X

Y

Z